Visit Website Did you know? Legend says Martin Luther was inspired to launch the Protestant Reformation while seated comfortably on the chamber pot. That cannot be confirmed, but in archeologists discovered Luther's lavatory, which was remarkably modern for its day, featuring a heated-floor system and a primitive drain.
Ninety-five Theses The first thesis has become famous. Theses 14—16 discuss the idea that the punishment of purgatory can be likened to the fear and despair felt by dying people. He denies that the pope has any power over people in purgatory in theses 25 and He sees it as encouraging sinful greed, and says it is impossible to be certain because only God has ultimate power in forgiving punishments in purgatory.
Since no one knows whether a person is truly repentant, a letter assuring a person of his forgiveness is dangerous. In theses 35 and 36, he attacks the idea that an Martin lurher thesis makes repentance unnecessary.
This leads to the conclusion that the truly repentant person, who alone may benefit from the indulgence, has already received the only benefit the indulgence provides. Truly repentant Christians have already, according to Luther, been forgiven of Martin lurher thesis penalty as well as the guilt of sin.
Theses 39 and 40 argue that indulgences make true repentance more difficult.
Here he begins to use the phrase, "Christians are to be taught In theses 48—52 Luther takes the side of the pope, saying that if the pope knew what was being preached in his name he would rather St.
He states that everyday Christians do not understand the doctrine and are being misled. For Luther, the true treasure of the church is the gospel of Jesus Christ. This treasure tends to be hated because it makes "the first last",  in the words of Matthew The preachers have been promoting indulgences as the greatest of the graces available from the church, but they actually only promote greed.
Luther states that indulgences cannot take away the guilt of even the lightest of venial sins. He labels several other alleged statements of the indulgence preachers as blasphemy: He presents these as difficult objections his congregants are bringing rather than his own criticisms. How should he answer those who ask why the pope does not simply empty purgatory if it is in his power?
What should he say to those who ask why anniversary masses for the deadwhich were for the sake of those in purgatory, continued for those who had been redeemed by an indulgence? Luther claimed that it seemed strange to some that pious people in purgatory could be redeemed by living impious people.
Luther also mentions the question of why the pope, who is very rich, requires money from poor believers to build St.
Luther claims that ignoring these questions risks allowing people to ridicule the pope.
Enduring punishment and entering heaven is preferable to false security. Holding such a debate was a privilege Luther held as a doctor, and it was not an unusual form of academic inquiry. Karlstadt posted his theses at a time when the relics of the church were placed on display, and this may have been considered a provocative gesture.
Around this time, he began using the name "Luther" and sometimes "Eleutherius", Greek for "free", rather than "Luder". This seems to refer to his being free from the scholastic theology which he had argued against earlier that year.
Elizabeth Eisenstein has argued that his claimed surprise at their success may have involved self-deception and Hans Hillerbrand has claimed that Luther was certainly intending to instigate a large controversy. Since writing a set of theses for a disputation does not necessarily commit the author to those views, Luther could deny that he held the most incendiary ideas in the Theses.
In the letter, Luther addresses the archbishop out of a loyal desire to alert him to the pastoral problems created by the indulgence sermons. Luther does not condemn indulgences or the current doctrine regarding them, nor even the sermons which had been preached themselves, as he had not seen them firsthand.
Instead he states his concern regarding the misunderstandings of the people about indulgences which have been fostered by the preaching, such as the belief that any sin could be forgiven by indulgences or that the guilt as well as the punishment for sin could be forgiven by an indulgence.
In a postscript, Luther wrote that Albert could find some theses on the matter enclosed with his letter, so that he could see the uncertainty surrounding the doctrine of indulgences in contrast to the preachers who spoke so confidently of the benefits of indulgences.
In reality, posting theses for a disputation would have been routine. It was customary when proposing a disputation to have the theses printed by the university press and publicly posted. He requested the opinion of theologians at the University of Mainz and conferred with his advisers.Below is the complete text of the 95 Theses of Martin Luther: Out of love for the truth and from desire to elucidate it, the Reverend Father Martin Luther, Master of Arts and Sacred Theology, and ordinary lecturer therein at Wittenberg, intends to defend the following statements and to .
The Ninety-five Theses or Disputation on the Power of Indulgences is a list of propositions for an academic disputation written in by Martin Luther, professor of moral theology at the University of Wittenberg, Germany, that started the Reformation, a schism in the Catholic Church which profoundly changed Europe.
by Martin Luther 1. When our Lord and Master Jesus Christ said, “Repent” (Mt ), he willed the entire life of believers to be one of repentance. 2. This word cannot be understood as referring to the sacrament of penance, that is, confession and satisfaction, as administered by the clergy.
3. 95 Theses Martin Luther nailed on the church door at Wittenburg. OCTOBER 31, Out of love for the truth and the desire to bring it to light, the following propositions will be discussed at Wittenberg, under the presidency of the Reverend Father Martin Luther, Master of Arts and of Sacred Theology, and Lecturer in Ordinary on the same at that place.
(Top of Martin Luther 95 Theses) 9. Therefore, the Holy Spirit, acting in the Pope, does well for us, when the latter in his decrees entirely removes the article of death and extreme necessity. Those priests act unreasonably and ill who reserve for Purgatory the penance imposed on the dying.
The 95 Theses Out of love for the truth and from desire to elucidate it, the Reverend Father Martin Luther, Master of Arts and Sacred Theology, and ordinary lecturer therein at Wittenberg, intends to defend the following statements and to dispute on them in that place.