These computing devices can be mainframes, workstations, PCs, or specialized computers; they can also be connected to a variety of peripherals, including printers, modems, and CD-ROM towers. Most networks are supported by a host of specialized software and hardware that makes these connections possible, including routers, bridges, and gateways, which help accommodate traffic between unlike systems. Many different types of computer networks exist.
Service providers are attracted by the lower-cost model-the cost of packet voice is currently estimated to be only 20 to 50 percent of the cost of a traditional circuit-based voice network. Likewise, enterprise network designers are interested in direct cost savings associated with toll-bypass and tandem switching.
Both are also interested in so-called "soft savings" associated with reduced maintenance costs and more efficient network control and management. Finally, packet-based voice systems offer access to newly enhanced Main benefits osi model such as Unified Messaging and application control.
These, in turn, promise to increase the productivity of users and differentiate services. Integration of voice and data technologies has accelerated rapidly in recent years because of both supply- and demand-side interactions.
On the demand side, customers are leveraging investment in network infrastructure to take advantage of integrated applications such as voice applications. On the supply side, vendors have been able to take advantage of breakthroughs in many areas, including standards, technology, and network performance.
When the context is clear, the term is often shortened to "wireless". Wireless communication is generally considered to be a branch of telecommunications. It encompasses various types of fixed, mobile, and portable two way radios, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants PDAsand wireless networking.
Other examples of wireless technology include GPS units, garage door openers and or garage doors, wireless computer mice, keyboards and headsets, satellite television and cordless telephones.
The following article provides information about Wireless Technologies: Wireless Technologies Cable Access Technologies Historically, CATV has been a unidirectional medium designed to carry broadcast analog video channels to the maximum number of customers at the lowest possible cost.
CATV was introduced in the s and s and for many decades little changed beyond increasing the number of channels supported.
The technology to provide high-margin, two-way services remained elusive to the operator. The s and the rise of IPTV saw this delivery model change. Today CATV providers utilize IP protocols for two-way data traffic while simultaneously delivering interactive video programing.
The following article provides information about Cable Access Technologies: It involves customer premises equipment CPE device sending the telephone switch a phone number to direct a connection to.
The AS, on the other hand, is an example of a router that communicates with external modems. Since the time of Internetworking Technologies Handbook, 2nd edition, the carrier market has continued to grow, and there have been demands for higher modem densities.
The answer to this need was a higher degree of interoperation with the telco equipment and the refinement of the digital modem: This has allowed the development of faster CPE modems that take advantage of the clarity of signal that the digital modems enjoy.
The following article provides information about Dial-up Technology: Dial-up Technology Security Technologies With the rapid growth of interest in the Internet, network security has become a major concern to companies throughout the world. The fact that the information and tools needed to penetrate the security of corporate networks are widely available has increased that concern.
Because of this increased focus on network security, network administrators often spend more effort protecting their networks than on actual network setup and administration. Tools that probe for system vulnerabilities, such as the Security Administrator Tool for Analyzing Networks SATANand some of the newly available scanning and intrusion detection packages and appliances, assist in these efforts, but these tools only point out areas of weakness and may not provide a means to protect networks from all possible attacks.
Thus, as a network administrator, you must constantly try to keep abreast of the large number of security issues confronting you in today's world. This article describes many of the security issues that arise when connecting a private network to the Internet.
The following article provides information about Security Technologies: The primary goal of QoS is to provide priority including dedicated bandwidth, controlled jitter and latency required by some real-time and interactive trafficand improved loss characteristics. Also important is making sure that providing priority for one or more flows does not make other flows fail.
QoS technologies provide the elemental building blocks that will be used for future business applications in campus, WAN, and service provider networks.
The following articles provide information about Quality of Service: Resource Reservation Protocol Network Caching Technologies Although the volume of Web traffic on the Internet is staggering, a large percentage of that traffic is redundant-multiple users at any given site request much of the same content.2.
Source Code. The program must include source code, and must allow distribution in source code as well as compiled form. Where some form of a product is not distributed with source code, there must be a well-publicized means of obtaining the source code for no more than a reasonable reproduction cost, preferably downloading via the Internet .
Creating a PDF of the Internetworking Technology Handbook.
Create a PDF of the Internetworking Technology Handbook that you can save on your computer and print.. Internetworking Basics. An internetwork is a collection of individual networks, connected by intermediate networking devices, that functions as a single large network.
Learn about how the Application Layer of the OSI model allows us to perform basic daily activities. Go over the definition of the Application Layer as well as its various functions and protocols. The Four-Star Badass is a badass in a military hierarchy that also happens to be a general or flag officer.
The Colonel Badass page explains that a Colonel is usually more badass than a General because although a General has the higher rank (and may even be a certifiable badass himself) they're.
Today we will talk about a very important issue for those working with mobile communications: what are the different modes and states that a mobile phone can take, as well as how the transitions occurs between each of them. This tutorial explains why OSI Model was developed with features and advantages provided of OSI Seven Layer model in details.
Understand the basic concepts .