Examination of the slave experience

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Examination of the slave experience

Scope of the trade[ edit ] A 19th-century European engraving of Arab slave-trading caravan transporting African slaves across the Sahara. African Zanj slaves[ edit ] The Arab slave trade, across the Sahara desert and across the Indian Oceanbegan after Muslim Arab and Swahili traders won control of the Swahili Coast and sea routes during the 9th century see Sultanate of Zanzibar.

These traders captured Bantu peoples Zanj from the interior in present-day KenyaMozambique and Tanzania and brought them to the coast. This trade accelerated as superior ships led to more trade and greater demand for labour on plantations in the region. Eventually, tens of thousands of captives were being taken every year.

To meet the demand for menial labor, Bantu slaves bought by Arab slave traders from southeastern Africa were sold in cumulatively large numbers over the centuries to customers in EgyptArabiathe Persian GulfIndiaEuropean colonies in the Far Eastthe Indian Ocean islandsEthiopia and Somalia.

The Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs recruited many Zanj slaves as soldiers and, as early asthere were revolts of Zanj slave soldiers in Iraq.

The resulting labor shortage led to an increased slave market. It is certain that large numbers of slaves were exported from eastern Africa ; the best evidence for this is the magnitude of the Zanj revolt in Iraq in the 9th century, though not all of the slaves involved were Zanj.

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Wealthy proprietors "had received extensive grants of tidal land on the condition that they would make it arable. Zanj also worked the salt mines of Mesopotamiaespecially around Basra.

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The working conditions were also considered to be extremely harsh and miserable. Many other people were imported into the region, besides Zanj. Shaban has argued that rebellion was not a slave revolt, but a revolt of blacks zanj. In his opinion, although a few runaway slaves did join the revolt, the majority of the participants were Arabs and free Zanj.

If the revolt had been led by slaves, they would have lacked the necessary resources to combat the Abbasid government for as long as they did. According to Robert Davis, between 1 million and 1. They were also taken from ships stopped by the pirates.

France, England, and Spain each lost thousands of ships.

Examination of the slave experience

Long stretches of the Spanish and Italian coasts were almost completely abandoned by their inhabitants, because of frequent pirate attacks. Pirate raids discouraged settlement along the coast until the 19th century. He further argues such use of the terms "Islamic trade" or "Islamic world" erroneously treats Africa as being outside Islam, or a negligible portion of the Islamic world.

Overland routes across the Maghreb and Mashriq deserts Trans-Saharan route [42] Sea routes to the east of Africa through the Red Sea and Indian Ocean Oriental route [43] [44] The Arab slave trade originated before Islam and lasted more than a millennium. History of slavery in the Muslim world and Barbary slave trade African Zanj slaves[ edit ] The Arab trade of Zanj Bantu slaves in Southeast Africa is one of the oldest slave trades, predating the European transatlantic slave trade by years.

Arab, African and Oriental[ dubious — discuss ] traders were involved in the capture and transport of slaves northward across the Sahara desert and the Indian Ocean region into the Middle East, Persia and the Far East.

Historical accounts and references to slave-owning nobility in Arabia, Yemen and elsewhere are frequent into the early s. To meet the demand for menial labor, Bantus from southeastern Africa captured by Somali slave traders were sold in cumulatively large numbers over the centuries to customers in Somalia and other areas in Northeast Africa and Asia.

Collectively, these Bantu groups are known as Mushunguli, which is a term taken from Mzigula, the Zigua tribe's word for "people" the word holds multiple implied meanings including "worker", "foreigner", and "slave".

They were mostly domestic servants, though some served as agricultural labourers, or as water carriers, herdsmen, seamen, camel drivers, porters, washerwomen, masons, shop assistants and cooks.

The most fortunate of the men worked as the officials or bodyguards of the ruler and emirs, or as business managers for rich merchants.

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Besides Javanese and Chinese girls brought in from the Far East, "red" non-black Ethiopian young females were among the most valued concubines.

The most beautiful ones often enjoyed a wealthy lifestyle, and became mistresses of the elite or even mothers to rulers.

Their captives were enslaved and shipped to the Mediterranean coast, Europe, Arabia, the Western Hemisphere, or to the slave ports and factories along the West and North Africa or South the Ubanqui and Congo rivers. Some descendants of African slaves brought to the Middle East during the slave-trade still live there today, and are aware of their African origins.

The European slaves were acquired by Barbary pirates in slave raids on ships and by raids on coastal towns from Italy to Spain, Portugal, France, England, the Netherlands, and as far afield as Iceland.

Men, women, and children were captured to such a devastating extent that vast numbers of sea coast towns were abandoned. Ohio State University history Professor Robert Davis describes the white slave trade as minimized by most modern historians in his book Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: When the European slave trade ended around the s, the slave trade to the east picked up significantly[ dubious — [[Talk:Initial Cross Examination and Witness Mr Mieczyslaw Pemper.

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Examination of the slave experience

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Examination of the Slave Experience Most African Americans of the early to mid-nineteenth century experienced slavery on plantations similar to the experiences described by Frederick Douglass; the majority of slaves lived on units owned by planters who had twenty or more slaves.

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