Biography[ edit ] Early life and career — [ edit ] Clarke was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on January 9, [note 1] as the youngest of two sons, to Martha Grace Scott, a pianist from Pittsburgh, and Charles Spearman, a trombonist from Waycross, Georgia.
The dictionary definitions miss a vital aspect. The origin of the term implies equality or 'one-ness', but identities are no longer rationed to one per physiological specimen. A person may adopt different identities at various times during a life-span, and some individuals maintain several at once.
Nor are such multiple roles illegal, or even used primarily for illegal purposes.
Typical clarke international writing services include women working in the professions, artists and novellists, and people working in positions which involve security exposure such as prison warders and psychiatric superintendents. For the purposes of record systems, these definitions are rather abstract and unhelpful.
Information Technology Dictionaries are of little or no assistance; for example, the Penguin Dictionary of Computersp. In the context of information systems, the purpose of identification is more concrete: Hence this paper adopts as its operational definition: The original needs for identification were social rather than economic.
The social dimension of human culture is reflected by the idea of a person 'identifying' with a group. Indeed, group-membership 'one of us' or 'one of them' was probably a far more important matter than individual identity 'I', 'you' or 'he' throughout pre-historic times and most of the historic era.
Relatives, friends and acquaintances recognise a person on a contextual basis, in which physical appearance, voice characteristics, knowledge of private information, location and espoused name all play a part.
These features are not individually reliable, they only work when the clarke international writing services involved are in close proximity, and they depend upon human memory, with all its vagaries. They are, however, sufficient for most social purposes. As the complexity of economic transactions developed, the need arose for parties to know with whom they were dealing.
It became normal for parties to provide one another with information about themselves, appropriate to the nature of the transaction. This may have been an explicit identifier e. Alternatively, a number of pieces of information might together identify the person 'meet me at the bar on the corner in ten minutes; I'll be wearing a red carnation in my lapel'; or 'you'll always find me in this corner of the market on Tuesdays.
Ask Beowulf at the next stall - he'll vouch for that'. The purposes of the interchange of identification include to provide a gesture of goodwill, to develop mutual confidence, and to reduce the scope for dishonesty; to enable either person to initiate the next round of communications; and to enable either person to associate transactions and information with the other person.
If identification is to be more than casual and unreliable, it must have an adequate basis. There are several types of evidence which could be used.
Some depend on intrinsic or physiological characteristics of the person, others on more abstract information. In practice a person is accepted as being the person to whom a record relates because they represent themselves as being that person, they know things that in the normal course of events only that person would be expected to know, they do things like paying money that would only be in the interests of that person to do, or they are in possession of a document or token which it is reasonable to expect that, and preferably only that, person to have.
In practice, it is common to use various techniques in combination. All identification mechanisms are fraught with difficulties, and hence the vast majority of transactions involve risk. They also cost money. A primary purpose of this paper is to provide a basis whereby individual organisations on the one hand, and policy-makers on the other, can use rational processes to implement schemes which balance the costs, the benefits and the risks involved.
They continue to be treated with considerable looseness by most legal systems, particularly those whose origins can be traced to Britain. For social purposes, informal, contextual identification is sufficient.
There are also many circumstances in which informal identification, or even none at all, suffices for economic transactions. This is generally the case for transactions which are completed in a single step, as is the case with both barter and sales for cash, and in other circumstances, where the costs of errors are negligible, or the party bearing the risk of an identification error does so willingly.
In some situations, however, organisations have a need for reliable identification of the individuals they deal with.View company leaders and background information for Clarke International Writing Services, Inc. Search our database of over million company and executive lausannecongress2018.comd: Apr 02, Kenneth Clarke (born Kenneth Clarke Spearman; January 9, – January 26, ), nicknamed Klook, was an American jazz drummer and bandleader.A major innovator of the bebop style of drumming, he pioneered the use of the Ride cymbal to keep time rather than the hi-hat, along with the use of the bass drum for irregular accents ("dropping bombs").
About Clarke International Writing Services. Clarke International Writing Services, Inc. – operated and owned by Stephanie Clarke – allows clients the opportunity to have all of their needs met by giving them the option to work with Stephanie on an individual basis, or with a team of qualified professionals specializing in various writing and editing services.
Welcome to Clarke International Writing Services. Our ghostwriting services have been developed to help your book come alive and make your publishing dreams reality! Sir Arthur Charles Clarke CBE FRAS (16 December – 19 March ) was a British science fiction writer, science writer and futurist, inventor, undersea explorer, and television series host..
He is famous for being co-writer of the screenplay for the film A Space Odyssey, widely considered to be one of the most influential films of all time. Welcome to Clarke International Writing Services. CI Writing Services, Inc. CI Writing Services, Inc.