As a student he was brilliant but psychologically tormented. From the s on, Foucault was very active politically.
But few, if any, would say thatLocke was a historian as well. Unlike Hobbes before him andHume after him, Locke would write no history of England or ofEnglish politics.
My intention in this paper then is not to makethe claim that he was a "historian" in the strict sense of the word. Iwould therefore agree with John Pocock when he writes thatLocke was the only major political writer of his age who did nottry "to understand English politics through the history of Englishlaw and English political institutions.
Pocock himselfhas furnished us with an impressive list of reasons why Locke hadgood reason to be suspect of most seventeenth-century Englishhistorical writings including the work of those who were closest toLocke in their political interests if not in their historical ones.
In-deed, by a masterful analysis of its context and development,Pocock has shown how the Whig interpretation of English con-stitutional history rested on little more than a negligible amountof political reasoning, a certain number of specific political goals,and a great deal of received political myth.
And so, because hewas an empiricist philosopher as well as a Whig political theorist,Locke could be expected to have been wary of such histories as hemost certainly was. Neither Machiavelli, nor Hobbes, norRousseau succeeded in making the discussion of politics so completely independent ofhistorical example, so entirely autonomous an area of discourse" p.
Historical Fact or Moral Fiction? They have argued with great skill andlearning that what was central to early modern political thoughtwas not so much its concern with reason, but its interest in anddevelopment of, a truly modern historical analysis of politics.
However, in rejecting the ra-tionalist interpretation of his tradition while reaffirming it insofaras he himself is concerned, Pocock has all but "bracketed" Lockeout of the times in which he lived.
I willargue that Locke had very definite ideas about the study of history4 The "plain historical method" is the phrase which Locke coined to describe his em-piricist philosophy in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, ed.
Hereafter referred to as Essay, with book, chapter and sec-tion designations. Indeed exploding the "myth" aboutLocke's influence in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries has always been a centralconcern of Pocock's from the Ancient Constitution through the Machiavellian Moment.
What is more, an examination of those ideas suggests thatLocke probably rejected English historical thought and its attend-ant forms of political argument because they ran counter to themore developed sense of history which I believe he possessed.
Ironically enough, Locke would abandon English historicalstudies of the English past for precisely the same reasons thatPocock criticized them when compared with a far more subtle andsophisticated form of historical political analysis which had beentaking shape on the Continent from the beginning of the Re-naissance.
According to Pocock it was in the work of Frenchhistorians like Francois Hotman, Jean Boudoin, and most of all,Jean Bodin, that the historical sense, here defined as the intention"to return facts to their historical contexts and interpret themthere," experienced its greatest growth and maturation.
But Locke was oneEnglishman who did recognize the importance of what Bodin hadtried to do,9 and it will be in pursuing his ideas about the task of"returning facts to their context" which will reveal to us the realdepth of Locke's historical sense and the manner in which itpermeated his ideas about politics and his relationship to hisaudience.
It is certainly true that the political theorists most oftenassociated with the origins of liberal political thought never madejustifications by historical example a conspicuous feature of theirtheoretical arguments. One reason for this has been thecharacteristically liberal position that the mere "historicity" of ahuman act does not establish either its rationality or justness.
Butin addition to this principled objection to "historicism,"10 therewere also certain methodological problems which the English em-piricists of the seventeenth century saw involved in the study ofhuman history.
For Hobbes, the greatest of these problems was8 Pocock, Ancient Constitution p. Princeton, 1: Unfortunately, it is only the first kindof criticism which has commanded the attention of most latercommentators on Locke's political writings and ideas.
This, in turn, points to a rather dif-ferent sort of relationship between the origins of liberalism inLocke and the study of history than has hitherto been noticed.
Locke's interest in historical questions was a long-standingone, and was reflected in both his published and unpublishedwritings.
We may begin by noting that in his journal for 12March Locke had dismissed the study of history assomething which would "get a man well off in the world especiallyamong the learned but get him very little on his way toward trueknowledge.
Now he seemed to hold forth the possibilitythat history could be, as Bodin had argued, a "true narration ofthings. There he shallsee a picture of the world and the nature of mankind and so learn to11 Cited in J. Watkins, Hobbes'System of Ideas London, p. Thus forLocke, according to Dunn: In order to rectify these defects it is necessary tofind some criterion for human morality which is outside history.
Hence the necessity for alaw of nature" pp. In both instances, Locke is eager topoint out that "at best, an argument from what has been to what should of right be, has nogreat force" London,1: There he shall see the rise of opinions andfind from what slight, and sometimes shameful occasions some ofthem have taken their rise.
There also one may learn great anduseful instructions of prudence and be warned against the cheatsand rogues of the world. Writing on the sub-ject of "study" inLocke divided the "field of all humanknowledge" into four kinds of inquiry or adversaria; and two ofthese, namely historica and immitanda, were distinctly "historical" incharacter.
Historica, therefore, was to study history in order "tocomprehend the opinions or traditions which are to be foundamongst men concerning God, creation, revelation, prophesies,miracles" as well as those "things that are commanded, forbidden,or permitted by their municipal laws.
This is what gave historical studiespurpose and meaning; the hope that we may find in the past ex-amples of rational thought and virtuous action worthy of our im-itation. And it ishere that the full extent of Locke's historical sense is first revealedto us.
It has recently been suggested that "Locke's theory of language. This posi-tion most certainly reflected his more general opinion that despitethe "imperfection of words" as accurate significations of the ideas15 King, Life, 1:Benedito de Espinoza was born on 24 November in the Jodenbuurt in Amsterdam, Netherlands.
He was the second son of Miguel de Espinoza, a successful, although not wealthy, Portuguese Sephardic Jewish merchant in Amsterdam. His mother, Ana Débora, Miguel's second wife, died when Baruch was only six years old.
Spinoza's mother . John Locke (—) John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century. He is often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government.
John Locke Empiricist Philosophy: Summary of John Locke's main ideas, Biography, Portrait and Quotes. John Locke The most important thinker of modern politics is the most directly responsible for Thomas Jefferson’s rhetoric in the Declaration of Independence, and the rhetoric in the U.
Ancient Egypt has little autonomy, individual rights, or freedom of much, and it lasted about 3, years largely unchanged. That’s a much more successful track record for .
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|JSTOR: Access Check||Historical development Ancient origins Philosophical interest in religion may be said to have originated in the West with the ancient Greeks.|
|Report of the Dallas National Science Foundation Workshop||Western political philosophy to the end of the 19th century Antiquity Although in antiquity great civilizations arose in Egypt and Mesopotamia, in the Indus Valley, and in Chinathere was little speculation about the problems of political philosophy as formulated in the West. The Code of Hammurabi c.|
|Baruch Spinoza - Wikipedia||Students will be encouraged to develop critical reasoning skills that can be widely applied. Case studies from the history of astronomy, epidemiology, molecular biology, and neuroscience provide a basis for understanding of the character of scientific theories and the means by which they are evaluated.|
|Wikipedia:WikiProject Religion/Library - Wikipedia||While attempting to be somewhat politically correct here, obviously whenever someone believes in anything, they do not believe in other things. There must be another system which is just as compelling.|
World History Review study guide by ruxlyn includes questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades. Online version of magazine about sex, politics, profiles, entertainment, fitness, alternative health, people, events travel and spirit.